Affiliation Department etc.

Department of Fundamental Study
Department of Computer Science
Center for Research and Development in Higher Engineering-Education


Associate Professor


  • Leeds Metropolitan University -  PhD

  • Aston University -  MA

  • Trinity College, Dublin University -  Master of Engineering

Academic Society Affiliations


    National Guild of Hypnotists (NGH)


    Association of NLP




    Material Writers SIG


    NLP Connections Japan

Field of expertise (Grants-in-aid for Scientific Research classification)

  • Educational psychology

  • Linguistics


Research Career

  • Sound and Education Media

    (not selected)  

    Project Year:  2001.04  -  Now

  • Songwriting in a foreign language

    (not selected)  

    Project Year:  2001.04  -  Now

  • Techniques in the Culture Classroom

    (not selected)  

    Project Year:  2001.04  -  Now

  • Technical English

    (not selected)  

    Project Year:  2001.04  -  Now

  • L2 Creativity

    (not selected)  

    Project Year:  2001.04  -  Now

Thesis for a degree

  • Exploring Second Language Creativity: Understanding and Helping L2 Songwriters

    Brian Cullen 

      2 - 431   2009.11  [Refereed]

    8   1

    This study investigated how to help Japanese songwriters writing in English. It also aimed to evaluate and develop tools for probing the mental processes underlying L2 creativity. Evaluating various methodologies (corpus analysis of lyrics, interviews, verbal protocol analysis, and journal studies) led to eight case studies of Japanese L2 songwriters centered on the “dialogues of creation” which arose in one-to one songwriting workshops where the researcher adopted multiple roles including researcher, EFL teacher, creative coach, audience, and songwriter.
    Songwriting was shown to be a flexible use of cognitive, social, linguistic, and psychological strategies to solve a “song puzzle,” simultaneously manipulating mental representations, inner voice, external constraints of song norms and language, and internal constraints created by writing. Key requirements underlying L2 creativity were revealed as flexibility in strategy and language use, openness, creation of favourable circumstances, awareness of L1 norms, and development of craft through appropriate feedback and experiential learning. Other important issues addressed were motivations, inner and external validation criteria, borrowing and ownership, and L2 identity negotiation.
    Three approaches to helping L2 songwriters were formulated: a language-centered approach highlighting deviation from English song and linguistic norms, a skills-centered approach utilizing an L2 songwriting model, and a learner-centered approach identifyin characteristics of the "good L2 songwriter." Teacher mediation through songwriting exercises and feedback created an experiential and organic curriculum which facilitated rapid development of strategies and self-correction skills.
    The investigation into mental processes, use of metaphor, and management of multiple roles may interest qualitative researchers. The descriptions of creative cognitive strategies in manipulating mental representations and inner voice, importance of inner validation, and process model of L2 songwriting may inform research in L1 and L2 creativity. Pedagogic implications for experiential learning, collaborative learning, organic curriculum, bilingual clustering, and L2 identity negotiation may contribute to EFL and ESP.

  • Songs in the Discussion Classroom

    Brian Cullen 

      1 - 52   1999.08

    7   1

    This paper examines the use of songs in the foreign language discussion classroom. It aims to demonstrate that songs can be a powerful pedagogic tool in discussion and to establish a framework for the design of materials which incorporate songs.
    The use of appropriate music in the classroom has motivational effects for most learners. In addition, music has strong physiological effects and the resulting affect can positively influence cognition. Music may also encourage greater use of the right hemisphere of the brain and lead to a more holistic approach which increases the rate of language acquisition. The text of songs offers the advantages of authenticity and its features make it easily understandable to language learners. The universal themes enable it to to lead into almost any discussion topic and the personal perspective of the song participants direct it towards the central issues of the topic.
    In order to identify the meanings which are available for discussion, a model of meanings
    in music and song is developed by drawing on work from psychology and musicology. The meaning in music and song is influenced by four factors - musical structure, social context, physiological nature and cognitive nature. These interact to form meanings in the mind of the listener. These meanings can be grouped into three types - representation of external meanings, expression of emotions and musical meanings. The large variety of meanings or possible interpretations of a song is seen as a positive rather than a negative point in the discussion classroom where their statement and resolution can produce a rich interchange of views.The four factors which influence these meanings are explored in detail and extensive examples of how they may be realized in discussion tasks are given.
    Moving from theory to practice, a framework for incorporating these discussion tasks into
    coherent materials is presented. Various options for presentation, comprehension, exploitation and
    discussion of the song are examined. These are illustrated with reference to a sample set of
    materials. In this way, teachers can easily produce their own materials. Songs can also be employed to encourage students to produce discussion materials. This can lead to greater learner autonomy and considerable learning outside the classroom as well as providing opportunities for teacher development.
    The paper concludes by reiterating the powerful role that songs can play in language
    acquisition in the discussion classroom and outlining some possibilities for further research.

  • Utilizing Computers to Optimize Retaining Wall Design

    Brian Cullen 

      1 - 75   1991.06  [Refereed]

    9   1


  • The Rules You Live By: Clarifying Beliefs and Values in the Classroom

    Brian Cullen, Ian Roth

    Humanistic Language Teaching ( Pilgrims )    2018.06

    Research paper (scientific journal)   Single Author

    This paper discusses how the development of autonomous, critical, and reflective thinking can be nurtured through an enjoyable classroom learning activity called The Rules of Life which facilitates the learner driven formulation of personal rules of life.

  • Investigating the Effects of Repeated Reading and NLP Language Patterns on Reading Rate

    Brian Cullen, Ben Backwell

    Nagoya City University Kiyo ( Nagoya City University )    2017.12

    Research paper (bulletin of university, research institution)   Multiple Authorship

    This paper investigates EFL student reading speed and describes a quasi-experimental study that attempted to quantify the effects of repeated reading and the use of NLP language patterns in the instructions. An experimental group (n=30) and a control group (n=30) carried out the same timed reading activity three times each lesson for five lessons. The instructions for the experimental group included NLP language patterns designed to promote faster reading. It was shown that the repeated reading is clearly correlated with gains in reading speed. With regard to the NLP language patterns, although there was an increase in mean reading speed, this was not shown to be statistically significant either within the lesson or over the course of the five lessons.

  • Goal-Stepping: Setting and Clarifying Goals in Physical Space

    Brian Cullen

    Mental Space Pyschology Society Newsletter ( Mental Space Pyschology Society )  8   8 - 15   2017.11  [Refereed]

    Research paper (scientific journal)   Single Author

    This article explores goal setting within the framework of embodied cognition and mental space psychology and discusses how a proposed "goal-stepping" process can be used in combination with traditional goal setting techniques in order to exploit the space around our bodies to reduce the cognitive workload. A study of goalsetting in the context of a Japanese university (n=40) is presented and the results indicate that the activity creates significant improvements (p<0.01) in three variables: clarity about the steps involved in setting goals (+37%), level of motivation towards goal (+22%), and belief in the likelihood of achieving the goal (+23%). Participants also indicated strongly (mean=82%) that physically moving in space helped them to identify the required steps towards the goal.

  • Rules of Life

    Brian Cullen, Ian Roth

    The Language Teacher ( Japan Association of Language Teachers (JALT) )  41 ( 5 ) 27 - 28   2017.06

    Research paper (scientific journal)   Multiple Authorship

    In The Rules of Life, Templar (2012) provides advice for living better. Some ‘rules’ he proposes include, “Accept what is done is done” and “Dedicate your life to something.” While these kinds of rules proposed by other people can be useful, this activity helps students to identify their own rules. This can foster learner autonomy and critical thinking while also providing a fun language learning experience. After coming up with their own rules, the students represent them graphically with icons and share their rules in short group presentations.

  • Helping Students to Develop Skills for Setting and Achieving Goals

    Brian Cullen, Ben Backwell

    PanSig Journal ( Japan Association of Language Teachers )  2017   2017.04  [Refereed]

    Research paper (scientific journal)   Single Author

    This paper explores the process of helping students to develop skills for setting and carrying out goals in their academic and non-academic life. It may be of interest to researchers and teachers working in the areas of developing learner autonomy and critical thinking. The paper offers several learning activities that students have used successfully to carry out goals such as sports success, overseas study, raising TOEIC scores, and other personal goals. The learning activities are divided into two distinct groups: setting goals and carrying out goals.

  • Utilizing NLP Language Patterns in Educational Settings

    Brian Cullen

    Acuity Journal ( Association of Neuro-Linguistic Programming )  6   66 - 77   2017.04  [Refereed]

    Research paper (scientific journal)   Single Author

    This article aims to examine the use and influence of teacher language and behaviours in educational settings from an NLP perspective and to demonstrate how teachers have a strong influence on the lifelong beliefs of students and wider society. It also discusses how NLP language patterns can be effectively used in the classroom, and reports on two related research studies which support the positive effects of Milton language patterns on performance and motivation.

  • The Wheel of Life as a Classroom Coaching Tool

    Brian Cullen

    New Directions ( Nagoya Institute of Technology )  35   1 - 14   2017.04

    Research paper (scientific journal)   Single Author

    This paper examines the use of a classic coaching tool, the Wheel of Life, in a classroom setting. Students’ academic success takes place within the framework of all areas of their life, including relationships, work, health, and much more. The Wheel of Life is helpful to recognize the interrelationship and mutual influence of the areas in a person’s life and to begin to coach self or others to achieve greater success in every area. In this study, students were taught how to use the tool and the results are discussed. The paper identifies the areas of highest and lowest satisfaction and shares student voices.

  • Creative Writing Across All the Senses

    Brian Cullen

    New Directions   34   19 - 26   2016.03

    Research paper (bulletin of university, research institution)   Single Author

    This paper introduces some simple and effective techniques for engaging students’ imaginations and interest more fully in their writing. In order to highlight the importance of involving the senses in the creative writing and other learning processes, the paper also examines the role that the senses play in our imagination and the activation of a greater area of the brain.

  • Clean Language in the Language Classroom

    Brian Cullen

    New Directions   33   73 - 78   2015.03

    Research paper (bulletin of university, research institution)   Single Author

    This paper explores how the questioning techniques of Clean Language can be used in the EFL classroom to help students to explore and enrich their own metaphors in simple language.

  • Modelling the Generation and Maintenance of Classroom Rapport

    Brian Cullen, Brad Deacon

    The Proceedings of JALT International Conference 2013   2 ( 2 ) 38 - 47   2014.06  [Refereed]

    Research paper (international conference proceedings)   Multiple Authorship

    味を持つことで、うまく教室の雰囲気作りをしてきた。Experiential Arrayとして知られている、モデリングツールの中でも簡

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  • Culture Through English

    Cameron Smith (Part: Editing and Writing )

    SIS Learning  2018.03

  • Humanity and Technology (3rd Edition)

    Brian Cullen (Part: Single Author )

    Intercom Press  2017.12 ISBN: 4-900689-58-0

  • GOAL: Identify and Achieve Your Life Goals (2nd Edition)

    Brian Cullen, Ben Backwell (Part: Multiple Authorship )

    SIS Publishing  2016.04 ISBN: 9784908413025

    This book will help you to improve your English in the most practical way--by actually using English in situations that are relevant to you. This book is all about you, your goals, your values--so we think that you will find it easy and enjoyable.

  • Language Gaps Between Academia and Industry

    Masashi Nagai, Kelly Quinn, Brian Cullen et al (Part: Single Author ,  Free Resources for Improving Your English )

    開成出版株式会社  2016.03 ISBN: 978-4-87603-503-8

    How to connect university language classes with industry needs

  • GOAL:Achieve Your Life Goals

    Brian Cullen, Ben Backwell (Part: Multiple Authorship )

    SIS Publishing  2015.04 ISBN: 9784908413025

    This book will help you to improve your English in the most practical way--by actually using English in situations that are relevant to you. This book is all about you, your goals, your values--so we think that you will find it easy and enjoyable.

  • Explorations in NLP and Language Teaching

    Brian Cullen (Part: Single Author )

    SIS  2015.03

    This book is an attempt to bring together some of the recent research and thinking in the application of neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) to language teaching. While all of the writers are teaching in a Japanese context, the ideas are universally applicable. All around the world, the one constant of education is that students should be learning, and at its heart NLP can be seen as a model of learning.

  • Neurolinguistic Programming & Change - Volume 1

    Brian Cullen (Part: Single Author )

    SIS  2014.08

    This book introduces and guides the reader through change processes for dealing with psychological issues which have proven to be blocks in learning or moving forward in any area of life.

  • Good Teacher, Better Teacher

    Hayo Reindeers (Part: Multiple Authorship )

    Perceptia Press  2011.04 ISBN: 993433342

  • You Talk

    Nigel Randall (Part: Editing and Writing )

    Perceptia Press  2011.03

  • The L2 Songwriter

    Brian Cullen (Part: Multiple Authorship )

    Research into Materials Development  2010.12

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  • Guerilla Coaching

    Brian Cullen

    JALT International Conference 2017  (Tsukuba University)  2017.11  -  2017.11  Japan Association of Language Teaching

  • Positive Psychology: From Classroom to the World

    Brian Cullen, Ben Backwell

    JALT International Conference 2017  (Tsukuba University)  2017.11  -  2017.11  Japan Association of Language Teaching

  • Utilizing Milton Language Patterns in Education

    Brian Cullen  [Invited]

    World Congress 2017: Hypnoculture  (Holiday Inn Express Paris-Canal de la Villette, Paris, France)  2017.09  -  2017.09  International Association of Coaching Institutes

  • From Burnout to Brilliance

    Brian Cullen, Sarah Mulvey

    SIS Teacher Development Workshops  (Nanzan University)  2017.07  -  2017.07  Standing in Spirit

  • Tips for English Medium Instruction

    Brian Cullen

    名古屋工業大学FD  2017.05  -  2017.05  Nagoya Institute of Technology

  • Writing With All Your Senses

    Brian Cullen, Sarah Mulvey

    PanSig Conference 2016  (Meio University, Nago)  2016.05  -  2016.05  PanSig, JALT

  • Developing Skills for Setting and Carrying Out Goals

    Brian Cullen, Sarah Mulvey

    PanSig Conference 2016  (Meio University, Nago)  2016.05  -  2016.05  PanSig, JALT

  • Advanced State Management Tools

    Brian Cullen  [Invited]

    NLP Connections Conference 2015  (Plastic Factory, Nagoya)  2015.11  -  2015.11  Standing in Spirit

  • Beyond Submodalities

    Brian Cullen  [Invited]

    NLP Connections Conference 2015  (Plastic Factory, Nagoya)  2015.10  -  2015.10  Standing in Spirit

  • A Demonstration of NLP Modelling

    Brian Cullen  [Invited]

    NLP Connections Conference 2015  (Plastic Factory, Nagoya)  2015.10  -  2015.10  Standing in Spirit

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  • Transit Musical Original Cast Audio Recording

    Artistic Activity  2017.11  -  2017.11

    Sound engineering and mixing for 19 track album.

  • Triquedraco

    Artistic Activity  2017.10  -  2017.10

    Track list:
    1.Dragon's Lament (Prologue)
    2.Sign of the Paganheart
    4.Black Mist Island
    5.Ancient Celtic Fire
    6.When the Sunrise
    7.Où Est la Rose?
    9.1014 (The Battle of Clontarf)
    10.Sword of Victory
    11.Inis Mór

  • Jukebox Paradise Original Cast Recording DVD

    Artistic Activity  2017.04  -  2017.04

  • Jukebox Paradise Original Cast Recording CD

    Artistic Activity  2017.01  -  2017.01

  • Insula Sacra

    Artistic Activity  2010.10  -  2010.10

Other research activities

  • NLP Trainer Training

    Fieldwork  2010.08  -  2010.08

Academic Awards Received

  • Best of JALT Presentations Award


  • Material Writers Contest, JALT 2006


Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research

  • TEEE; A New English Education System for First Year Students at Institutes of Technology in Tokai

    Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research(C)

    Project Year: 2010.04  -  2012.12  Investigator(s): Ishikawa Yuka

    The aim of the research is to develop a new English education system for first year student majoring in engineering at institutes of technology in the Tokai area. We created an English teacher's network for TEEE (Tokai English Education for Engineering Students), in order to clarify current problems, to develop a new methodology, and to apply it to our students. Results of the study suggested that teaching ESP (English for Specific Purposes) through the TEEE system can be effective not only for graduate students but also for first year students, since students are generally motivated to study science and engineering although their technical and English knowledge is very limited.


Academic Activity

  • 2017.04

    Association of NLP   Review Panel

  • 2015.01


  • 2012.04

    NLP Connections Japan   Chairman

  • 2011.04

    On Cue SIG   Proceedings and Journal Editorial

  • 2009.05

    Material Writers SIG   Editor

  • 2000.04


Social Contribution

  • The Undergraduate Awards

    The Undergraduate Awards  (Online )  2017.03  -  2017.10

    Judge in category of psychology in The Undergraduate Awards. This is the world's only pan-discipline awards programme, connecting and empowering the brightest students to inspire greatness. It is an international research contest to encourage undergraduates to raise the standard of their research.

  • Ireland - Today and the Past

    Aichi Prefectural University  (Aichi Prefectural University)  2016.12  -  2016.12


  • Understanding Ireland through Street Ballads

    Kinjo  (Kinjo Gakuen)  2016.06  -  2016.06


  • Ireland and Japan - 60 years of Cooperation

    Toyota International Association  National Day Lecture Series  (Toyota Industrial Culture Center)  2016.04  -  2016.04

  • Beyond Emigration - Understanding Modern Ireland

    Kinjo Gakuen  (Kinjo Gakuen)  2015.06  -  2015.06


  • An Exploration of The Hero's Journey

    Gifu Shotoku Gakuen University  (Gifu Shotoku Gakuen University)  2014.11  -  2016.11

  • Ireland - Land of Song and Story

    Keiwa Gakuen University  (Keiwa Gakuen University)  2014.06  -  2016.06


  • Understanding the History of Ireland Through Folk Song

    Kinjo Gakuen  (Kinjo Gakuen)  2014.05  -  2014.05


  • Traditional Music of Ireland

    Kinjo Gakuen  (Kinjo Gakuen)  2012.03  -  2012.03


  • Understanding Modern Ireland

    Kinjo Gakuen  (Kinjo Gakuen)  2007.11  -  2007.11